养成好习气 ? ? ?梁实秋?

Cultivating Good Habits? ? ? ??Liang Shiqiu

| 译文摘自张培基《英译中国散文选二》

人的本性大致是差不多的,然则在习气方面却各有不合,习气是渐渐养成的,在幼小的时辰最容易养成,一旦养成以后,要想改变过去却还不很容易。
Men are about the same in human nature, but differ in habit. Habit is formed little by little, and most easily in one’s childhood. Once it is formed, it is difficult to break.

例如说:凌晨夙兴是一个好习气,这也要从小时辰养成,很多可以上下分的电玩软件人从小就贪睡懒觉,一遇假日便要睡到半夜三更还高卧不起,平常平凡也是不肯夙兴,常常蓬首垢面的就往黉舍跑,成果照样捕鱼电玩上下分迟到,如许的人长大了以后也常是不知抖擞,多半不克不及有什么成就。祖逖闻鸡起舞,那才是志士奋励的榜样。
For example, the good habit of early rising also starts from one’s early life. Many people, however, have been in the habit of sleeping late ever since they were kids. They won’t get up till late morning on holidays and even oversleep on work days. Children are often late for school though they make a rush even without washing up. Such children, when they grow up, will often lack drive and most probably get nowhere. The story of Zu Ti1 rising at cockcrow to practise swordplay should be a good example for all men of resolve to learn from.

要点
1,“贪睡懒觉”译为sleeping late,如:Your headache comes from sleeping late.
即,你的头疼是睡懒觉的成果.
2,“一遇假日便要睡到半夜三更还高卧不起”直译的话会让本国人摸不着脑筋,是以采取意译的方法译为They won’t get up till late morning on holidays
3,“蓬头垢面”意即“没有洗漱和整顿”,也是不宜直译的一个词,现按意思译为without washing up。
4,“常常蓬首垢面的就往黉舍跑,成果照样捕鱼电玩上下分迟到”可懂得为一个让步句“虽然他们没有洗漱就往黉舍跑,依然是迟到”译为Children are often late for school though they make a rush even without washing up
5,“闻鸡起舞”即“听见鸡叫就起来舞剑”译为rising at cockcrow to practise swordplay,另“祖逖”是带有中国特点的词汇,宜采取释义法或加注法,此处由于释义法会形成句子的杂乱,译者采取了加脚注的方法
6,“志士”即“意志倔强者”译为men of resolve,resolve也可换为strong will,determination,aspiration。

综述:本段鄙谚,四字词,触及中国特点的词汇稍多,关于一些不好翻译的四字词可采取“迂回战术”取其在语境中的意思来翻

我们中国人最重礼,由于礼是行动的标准。礼要从家庭里做起。姑举一例:为后代者“出必告,反必面”,这一点点对晚辈的最少的礼,我们能否曾经逐日做到了呢?我看见有些个孩子们凌晨起来对父母视而不见,早晨回到家来如入无人之境,碰到晚辈常常横眉冷目,不屑搭讪。如许的跋扈乖戾之气假设不早早的改正过去,将来长大到社会办事,必将处处惹起磨擦不受迎接。我们不只对晚辈要恭敬可以上下分的电玩软件有礼,对任何人都应保持相当的礼貌。
We Chinese set great store by propriety because it is the accepted rules of social behavior. Propriety begins from the family. For example, children should keep their parents informed of their whereabouts. That is the ABC of good manners on the part of children. Yet some children just ignore their parents when they get up in the morning or come back from school. They often pull a long face and refuse to converse when they meet their elders. If they continue to be so cocky and willful without correcting themselves as soon as possible, they will never get along well with other people some days as members of society. We should be polite not only to our elders, but also to all people.

要点
1,为后代者“出必告,反必面”即“孩子出门或回家必须向家长说一声”或“必须告诉家长”,译为children should keep their parents informed of their whereabouts.whereabout意为“行迹”
2,“最少的礼”译得很成心思,为the ABC of good manners,个中ABC作“基本知识”讲,意同basics,fundametals
3,“我们能否曾经逐日做到了呢?”外面上是反问,实则能否定,译者将其的意思体现在了下文里,是以没有译出,保持了行文的简洁
4,“视而不见”和“如入无人之境”都表示“忽视父母”,译为ignore their parents便可
5,“将来长大到社会办事,必将处处惹起磨擦不受迎接”即“将来在社会上不克不及与他人和蔼相处”,译为they will never get along well with other people some days as members of society

综述:留意本段“最少的礼”采取的套用法。

大声讲话,扰及他人的安静,是一种不好的习气。我们试自检查一番,在他人读书任务的时辰能否有过鼓噪的行动?我们要随时随地为他人着想,保持公共的次序,挂念可以上下分的电玩软件他人的好处,弗成放肆自己,在公共场合人多的处所,要知道顺次列队,弗成抢先恐后地去乱挤。
It is a bad habit to talk loudly to the disturbance of others. Ask yourself if you ever made a lot of noise while others were at their studies or at work. We should be considerate of others at all times and places, caring for public order and interests and abstaining from self-indulgence. In crowded public places, you should line up and never push through to get ahead of others.

要点
1,“大声讲话,扰及他人的安静,是一种不好的习气”译为It is a bad habit to talk loudly to the disturbance of others.个中to 表示”招致,导致”,表示惹起某种后果
2,“弗成放肆自己”= abstaining from self-indulgence应用的是一个情势上肯定、语义上否定的动词构造

时间等于生命。我们的生命是一分一秒的在消费着,我们平常不大认为,细想起来其实值得当心。我们天天有很多的零碎时间于不知不觉中浪费掉落了,我们若能养成一种应用空闲的习气,一遇余暇,不管其为多么长久,都应用之做一点有益身心之事,则集腋成裘终必有成。常听人讲过“消遣”二字,最是要不得,仿佛是时间太多没法打发的模样,其实人生急促极了,哪里会有多余的时间待人“消遣”?陆放翁有句云:“待饭将来还读书。”我知道有人就常常应用这“待饭将来”的时间读了很多的大书。先人所谓“三上之功”,枕上、立时、厕上,虽缺乏为训,其意图是在劝人不要浪费年光。
Time is life. Our life is ticking away unnoticed minute by minute and second by second. It is certainly alarming when we come to think of it. Every day we are unconsciously wasting many odd moments. We should acquire the habit of utilizing leisure time, and snatch every odd moment to do whatever is beneficial to our body and mind. That will enable us to achieve good results little by little. People often talk most improperly about “seeking relaxation” as if they had more than enough time for them to while away. Life is, in fact, extremely short. How can you find so much surplus time for you to fool away? Lu Fangweng says in one of his poems, “Spend even the pre-meal odd moment in reading.” As far as I know, many people did snatch the odd moment before a meal to do a lot of reading. Our ancients recommended “three on’s”, that is, doing reading even while you are on a pillow, on a horse or on a nightstool. All that, though impracticable, serves the purpose of advising people not to waste time.

要点

1,“零碎时间”=odd time,下文的odd moment
2,“讲起‘消遣’二字”译为talk most improperly about “seeking relaxation”,此处“消遣”译为relaxation,其本意为“歇息,娱乐”
2,“最是要不得”意即“是最不合适的”译为most improperly
3, “待饭将来还读书。”即“饭前少焉也要用来读书”= Spend even the pre-meal odd moment in reading.
4,“三‘上’之功”可直译为three ‘ons’,由于以后有对这个词的详细解释
5,“虽缺乏为训”本作“虽缺乏师法”,但此处作者的意思是“现在没法实施”,故译为though impracticable
6,“其意图是在……”= serves the purpose of doing

综述:tick away这类词用得活泼且笼统,值得进修自创。

享乐刻苦是我们这个民族的标记可以上下分的电玩软件。古圣先贤总是经验我们要能过得俭朴捕鱼电玩上下分的生活,一个有志的人之本事得清寒。这在小我之教养上是应有的熟悉,罗马帝国盛时的一名皇帝,Marcus Aurelius,他从小就摒绝一切享用,历来不参不雅那当时风行全国的赛车交手之类的娱乐,终其身成为一名严肃的苦修派的哲学家,并且也建立了不朽的事功。这是很值得敬佩的,我们中国事一个穷的国度,所以我们更应当体念艰苦,弃绝一切奢侈,特别是从本国来的奢侈。从小就养成俭朴捕鱼电玩上下分的习气,更要知道物力维艰,竹头木屑,咸宜爱护。
Ours is a nation known for industry and self-denial. Frugality has always been the teaching of our ancient sages and wise men. A man of strong will should be able to endure Spartan living conditions. It should not be regarded as a disgrace to live a simple life. Nor should it be regarded as a glory to live a luxurious life. That should be the correct understanding one needs for self-cultivation. Marcus Aurelius, emperor of the Roman Empire in its heyday, refused to enjoy all comforts of life from childhood and always keep kept away from amusements like the chariot race then in vogue and other fighting-skill competitions. He remained a life-long staunch Stoic philosopher and meanwhile distinguished himself by numerous exploits. Ours is a poor country, so it is even more necessary for us to see the tough conditions facing us and renounce all luxuries, especially those coming from abroad. We should build up the habit of leading a thrifty life. We should bear in mind that all material resources are hard to come by and should be treasured, even including their odds and ends.

要点
1,“享乐刻苦是我们这个民族的标记可以上下分的电玩软件”译为Ours is a nation known for industry and self-denial.这类句式转换之前在《话说短文》中也出现过“…是中华民族的传统”也用了此句式。
2,“一个有志的人之本事得清寒”译为A man of strong will should be able to endure Spartan living conditions.个中spartan或Spartan译为“斯巴达的,斯巴达式的”和“艰苦朴实”解
3,“粗衣劣食,缺乏为耻,丰衣足食,缺乏为荣”= It should not be regarded as a disgrace to live a simple life. Nor should it be regarded as a glory to live a luxurious life.留意否定+Nor的应用
4,“体念艰苦”即“我们更需看到面对的灾害”,故译it is even more necessary for us to see the tough conditions facing us
5,“物力维艰”指财物来之不容易,译为all material resources are hard to come by
6,odds and ends意即“零碎的器械,杂七杂八的器械”

综述:留意本段句式的灵活性

以上数端不过是有时拈来,好的习气千丝万缕,“勿以善小而不为”。习气养成以后,便毫无委曲,临事平心静气,瓜熟蒂落。充斥优胜习气的生活,才是合于“天然”的生活
The above points have been picked by me at random. Good habits are too numerous to be dealt with one by one, but none, however, are too small to keep. Habit, once formed, will become your natural and spontaneous behaviour. A life full of good habits will be a life conforming with the law of nature.

要点
1,“千丝万缕”描述任务复杂纷乱,译为are too numerous to be dealt with one by one
2,…but none, however, are too small to keep.个中none too意为“一点也不”

综述
四字词浩大,使得文章的可读性加强,翻译时要在尽可能保持原文意可以上下分的电玩软件思的情况捕鱼电玩上下分下,从句式和选词上体现其文学性
1. Zu Ti, a patriotic general of the Jin Dynasty (317-420 A.D.). He was good friends with Liu Kun, another general. When they were young, being petty officials but highly motivated, they often encouraged each other and both rose at cockcrow to pratise swordplay.?

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