Elasticity is a term used a lot in economics to describe the way one thing changes in a given environment in response to another variable that has a changed value. 
弹性是经济学中常常应用的一个术语,用来描述可以上下分的电玩软件可以上下分的电玩软件在给定情况中一个变量相关于另外一个变量产生必定可以上下分的电玩软件比例改变的属性。

For example, the quantity of a specific product sold each month changes in response to the manufacturer alters the product's price.  
例如,每个月发卖的特定产品的数量随着厂商改变产品的价格而变更。

A more abstract way of putting it that means pretty much the same thing is that elasticity measures the responsiveness of one variable in a given environment to a change in another variable, which in this instance is a change in price. 
更加笼统的说法,弹性衡量的是给定情况中一个变量对另外一个蜕变变更的照应性,在这个例子中是价格变更。

Or you could also say it measures "the sensitivity" of that variable. 
或许你也能够说它丈量了这个变量的“灵敏度”。

Often, e conomists speak of a demand curve, where the relationship between price and demand varies depending upon how much or how little one of the two variables is changed. 
平日,经济学家说的是需求曲线,即价格和需求之间的关系取决于两个变量中的一个变更了若干。

Some Examples of Elasticity and Inelasticity
弹性和非弹性的一些例子

It's not surprising when a manufacturer substantially increases a product's price, that consumer demand should diminish. 
当制造商大幅度进步产品价格时,花费者的需求就会增添,这无独有偶。

Many common items, such as aspirin, are widely available from any number of sources. 
很多罕见物品,如阿司匹林,可以从很多来源广泛取得。

In such cases, the product's maker raises the price at its own risk -- if the price rises even a little, some shoppers might stay loyal to the specific brand -- at one time, Bayer nearly had a lock on the U.S. aspirin market -- but many more consumers would probably seek the same product from another manufacturer at the lower price. 
在这类情况下,厂商进步价格就会有自己的风险——假设价格小幅上浮,一些花费者能够依然会忠于特定的品牌——拜耳一度简直可以上下分的电玩软件占领了美国阿司匹林市场——然则更多的花费者能够会以较低的价格从其他厂商那边寻觅雷同的产品。 

In such instances, the demand for the product is highly elastic and such instances e conomists note a high sensitivity of demand.
在这类情况下,对产品的需求是高度弹性的,经济学家留意到了需求的高度敏理性捕鱼电玩上下分。

But in other instances, the demand is not elastic at all. 
但在其他情况下,需求根本不具有弹性。

Water, for example, is usually supplied in any given municipality by a single quasi-governmental organization, often along with electricity. 
例如,在任何特定的城市,水平日由一个单一的准当局组织供给,平日与电力一路供给。

When something consumers use daily, such as electricity or water,  has a single source, the demand for the product may continue even as the price rises -- basically, because the consumer has no alternative. 
当花费者平常应用的器械(比如电或水)只要独逐一个来源时,即使价格上浮,对产品的需求也照样会持续的,由于花费者们根本没有其他选择。 

Interesting 21st Century Complications
风趣的21世纪并发症

Another strange phenomenon in price/demand elasticity in the 21st century has to do with the Internet. 
21世纪价格/需求弹性的另外一个奇怪景象与互联网有关。

The New York Times has noted, for instance, that Amazon often changes prices in ways that are not directly responsive to demand, but rather to the ways consumers order the product -- a product that cost X when initially ordered may be filled at X-plus when reordered, often when the consumer has initiated automatic re-ordering. 
例如,《纽约时报》指出,亚马逊常常以不直接照应需求而是照应花费者订购产品的方法来改变价格——某种产品初次捕鱼电玩上下分订购时本钱为X,当花费者开端自动回购时,再次订购时的本钱就变成X+了。

The actual demand, presumably, hasn't changed, but the price has. 
实际需求能够没有产生变更,然则价格曾经改变了。

Airlines and other travel sites commonly change the price of a product based on an algorithmic estimation of some future demand, not a demand that actually exists when the price is changed. 
航空公司和其他旅游网站平日会根据对将来需求的估计来改变产品价格,而不是根据价格改变时实际存在的需求。

Some travel sites, USA and others have noted, put a cookie on the consumer's computer when the consumer first inquires about the cost of a product; when the consumer checks again, the cookie raises the price, not in response to a general demand for the product, but in response to a single consumer's expression of interest.
美国和其他一些旅游网站指出,当花费者初次捕鱼电玩上下分查询产品的价格时,会在花费者的电脑上贮存一个cookie;当花费者再次检查时,cookie会进步价格,这不是反应产品的广泛需求,而是反应了单个花费者的兴趣。

These situations do not at all invalidate the principle of price elasticity of demand. If anything, they confirm it, but in interesting and complicated ways.   
这些情况根本不会使需求的价格弹性准绳掉效。假设说有什么不合的话,那就是他们以风趣而复杂的方法证明了这一点。

In summary: 
综上所述:

Price/demand elasticity for common products is generally high.
浅显产品的价格/需求弹性平日很高。

Price/demand elasticity where the good has only a single source or a very limited number of sources is typically low.
当商品只要单一来源或来源数量异常有限时,价格/需求弹性平日很低。

External situations may create rapid changes in the price elasticity of demand for almost any product with low elasticity.
外部情况能够会招致简直可以上下分的电玩软件所有低弹性产品的需求价格弹性的快速变更。

Digital capabilities, such as "demand pricing" on the Internet, can affect price/demand in ways that were unknown in the 20th century.
数字才能,例如互联网上的“需求订价”,可以以20世纪未知的方法影响价格/需求。

How to Express Elasticity as a Formula
若何用公式表达弹性

Elasticity, as an economics concept,can be applied to many different situations, each with its own variables. In this introductory article, we've briefly surveyed the concept of the price elasticity of demand. Here's the formula:
弹性,作为一个经济学概念,可以应用到很多不合的情况,每种情况都有自己的变量。在这篇文章中,我们扼要简介捕鱼电玩上下分了需求价格弹性的概念。以下是需求价格弹性的公式:

Price Elasticity of Demand (PEoD) = (% Change in Quantity Demanded/ (% Change in Price)
需求价格弹性( PEoD ) = ( 需求质变更的百分比/ (价格变更的百分比)

 

(翻译:雅兰)